Accelerating climate change is recognized as having negative impacts on development and security.1 Impacts can vary significantly by sector, location and time period.2 Climate change has a major impact on human health. Numerous studies explore the impact of higher temperatures on economic performance, showing the overall negative impact of high temperatures.3 The adverse effects of climate change are already noticeable, natural disasters are more frequent and catastrophic, and developing countries are more vulnerable, according to the Johannesburg Declaration on Sustainable Development. Although climate change is a global phenomenon, poor people and countries are hardest hit by its negative effects.4 According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), gradual changes will cause global temperatures to rise and the water cycle to alter, causing sea levels to rise and climate zones to shift. .5
These effects include lower agricultural yields, exacerbated weather events such as droughts and floods, and increased vulnerabilities. According to the World Bank, more than 140 million economically disadvantaged people from sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia and Latin America will be forced to migrate within the country due to the impacts of climate change, including food shortages. water, declining agricultural productivity and rising sea levels by 2050. .6 In 2019 alone, climate change caused 24.9 million weather-related displacements.seven When such displacement occurs in fragile states, it not only creates national security and development challenges, but also threatens international security. If left unchecked, climate change has the potential to undo years of progress on sustainable development and fuel violent conflict.8 It is critically important to better understand the nexus between climate, conflict, fragility and development so that policymakers around the world can take appropriate action in collaboration with developing, fragile and conflict-affected countries. The purpose of this article is to focus on appropriate and renewed climate actions that must be taken urgently for effective and just climate adaptation. We argue that while relevant governments have a responsibility to integrate climate policy into their national development policies, G20 countries have unique responsibilities in providing the necessary financing and appropriate technology transfer to support adaptation policies. in fragile and developing countries, being among the most advanced. global emission levels.
Figure 1. Increase in CO2 emissions worldwide, 2010-2019
Source: Härterich and Petersen, 2021 (based on European Commission data)
Note: More than 80% of the countries whose CO2 emissions have increased the most over the past ten years are low- and lower-middle-income economies.
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